MacOS Startup key combinations

Startup key combinations for Mac

source https://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT201255

Some Mac features are available by holding down certain keys during startup.

Press and hold the keys immediately after you press the power button to turn on your Mac. Keep holding until the described behavior occurs.

Hold during startup Description
Shift (⇧) Start up in Safe Mode.
Option (⌥) Start up to Startup Manager.
C Start up from a bootable CD, DVD, or USB thumb drive (such as macOS install media).
D Start up to either Apple Hardware Test or Apple Diagnostics, depending on which Mac you’re using.
Option-D Start up to either Apple Hardware Test or Apple Diagnostics over the Internet.
N Start up from a compatible NetBoot server.
Option-N Start up from a NetBoot server using the default boot image.
Command (⌘)-R Start up from macOS Recovery.
Option-Command-R Start up from macOS Recovery over the Internet.
Option-Command-P-R Reset NVRAM.
Command-S Start up in single-user mode.
T Start up in target disk mode.
X Start up from an macOS startup disk when the Mac would otherwise start up from a non-macOS startup disk.
Command-V Start up in verbose mode.
Eject (⏏), F12, mouse button, or trackpad button Eject removable media, such as an optical disc.

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